Legalize It or Criminalize It - Should NEO/Ohio Lead The World in Medical Marijuana R&D, Production and Revenues?

Submitted by Norm Roulet on Tue, 02/09/2010 - 22:14.

Cannabis laws in Ann Arbor, Michigan

Cannabis laws in Ann Arbor, Michigan


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

During the last thirty years, the college town of Ann Arbor, Michigan has enacted some of the most lenient laws on marijuana possession in the United States. These include measures approved in a 1972 city-council ordinance, a 1974 voter referendum making possession of small amounts of the substance merely a civil infraction subject to a small fine, and a 2004 referendum on the use of medical marijuana. Since state law takes precedence over municipal law, the far-stricter state marijuana laws are still enforced on University of Michigan property, and within the city of Ann Arbor.
See also: Cannabis in the United States

Marijuana ordinance of 1972

Through the 1960s and early 1970s, as Ann Arbor played host to a number of radical organizations – including formative meetings of Students for a Democratic Society, the establishment of the White Panther Party, and the local Human Rights Party – public opinion in the city moved steadily to the left on the criminalization of marijuana possession. The Michigan Daily, the main student newspaper at the University of Michigan, gained national press coverage by urging the legalization of marijuana as early as 1967.[1] However, two more specific factors pushed the city towards the eventual adoption of marijuana enforcement provisions that proved to be among the most liberal in the country.

The first factor was local reaction to the highly punitive state penalties, which provided for a year's imprisonment for possession of two ounces (57 g) or less, four year's imprisonment for the sale of marijuana, and harsher penalties for repeat offenses. These unusually strict penalties received national attention when poet and activist John Sinclair was sentenced to ten years in prison for possession of two joints, a sentence that sparked the landmark "Free John Now Rally" at Ann Arbor's Crisler Arena in December 1971. The event brought together a who's-who of left-wing luminaries, including pop musicians John Lennon, Stevie Wonder, and Bob Seger, jazz artists Archie Shepp and Roswell Rudd, and speakers Allen Ginsberg, Rennie Davis, Jerry Rubin, and Bobby Seale.[2] Three days after the rally, Sinclair was released from prison after the Michigan Supreme Court ruled that the state's marijuana statutes were unconstitutional.

The second factor was the April 1972 election to Ann Arbor city council of two candidates from the Human Rights Party (HRP), an organization that promoted local progressive and radical causes.[3] In September 1972, several months after they took their seats on council, the HRP's two council members spearheaded a bill that would reduce city penalties for possession of less than two ounces of marijuana to a $5 civil-infraction ticket. (The city penalty had previously been identical to the state penalty.) City police would then charge violators under the city ordinance rather than the state statute. The HRP representatives, by garnering the support of Democratic council members, quickly managed to pass the ordinance over the objections of council Republicans. In supporting the new ordinance, Democratic mayor Robert J. Harris told the Washington Post, "In this town, it was the only way to go. ... We've made a great effort to get a decent relationship between the kids and the cops. Now at least we'll get the police out of the marijuana business."[4]

Outside observers characterized the ordinance as the most lenient in the country. In press interviews, the city attorney described the penalty as "sort of like a parking ticket," explaining that violators could mail the ticket, with a guilty plea and the fine, back to city hall in order to dispose of the charge.[5] City police and prosecutors agreed to use the $5 city ordinance, rather than the still-applicable state laws, as the tool for enforcement against violators. The city police chief, however, promised to continue to pursue large-scale drug dealers aggressively, using the harsher state laws against this class of violator.[5]

Shortly after the measure's adoption, the New York Times reported: "Under the trees on the University of Michigan campus, in the back rows of movie theaters – even, it is said, in the public gallery of the City Council chamber itself – young people are increasingly lighting up marijuana in public these days." However, both police and independent academic observers asserted in national media articles that the amount of marijuana smoked in the city had not increased; the locations had merely switched to include more public spaces.[5]
Charter amendment of 1974

Within weeks of its adoption, the new marijuana ordinance had sparked outrage in many parts of the state. The director of the Michigan State Police, for instance, immediately threatened to move his troopers into Ann Arbor in order to enforce the state codes against possession of marijuana. In the first test case, decided on September 29, 1972, a district court judge ruled the ordinance unconstitutional as an "intrusion of Ann Arbor in the judicial functions of the State of Michigan."[6] City voters responded in November by electing Perry Bullard to the Michigan House of Representatives on a platform that called for full legalization of the possession, but not sale, of marijuana by adults throughout the state.[7]

Despite the adverse court ruling, the city's marijuana ordinance remained in place until June 1973, when it was repealed by the city council. The local debate attracted attention from a number of national media outlets, including CBS and NBC television news programs[8] and the New York Times.[9] During the council's vote to repeal, about 150 spectators packed council chambers to light up joints in protest, and one protester hurled a cherry pie at Mayor James Stephenson.[9]

On April 2, 1974, voters in Ann Arbor overruled the council's decision by amending the city charter with the famous Section 16.2, which, in somewhat altered form, remains in effect today.[10] The charter section reinstated the $5 civil-infraction penalty for possession, use, giving away, or selling of marijuana and prohibited city police from enforcing the more stringent state laws. The same day, the neighboring city of Ypsilanti adopted a similar measure.[11] In adopting the charter amendment, Ann Arbor voters asserted that the provisions were necessary to ensure the "just and equitable legal treatment of the citizens of this community, and in particular of the youth of this community present as university students or otherwise."[12]

Part of Section 16.2 declared that no city police officer "shall complain of the possession, control, use, giving away, or sale of marijuana or cannabis to any other authority except the Ann Arbor city attorney; and the city attorney shall not refer any said complaint to any other authority for prosecution."[12] In doing so, the provision effectively denied state courts the opportunity to declare the measure unconstitutional, as had occurred in 1972, since a test-case opportunity would thus never come before a state judge.

The perception of the city as a haven for marijuana permeated the local culture. In January 1975, the countercultural Ann Arbor Sun newspaper held a "Win a Pound of Colombian" giveaway contest of marijuana.[13] Meanwhile, John Sinclair ran a local, pro-legalization radio program entitled Toke Time on Ann Arbor's WNRZ-FM.[14]
Tightening the Marijuana law in 1990

During the 1980s, pressure grew from Ann Arbor Republicans to eliminate the city's lenient marijuana city-charter section. In a 1983 referendum, Ann Arbor voters rejected a proposed repeal of the section, with 61.7 percent of voters opposing the proposed tightening of marijuana codes.[15] By the late 1980s, however, moderate GOP mayor Gerald D. Jernigan was calling the marijuana code an "embarrassment" to the city.[16] In January 1990, the city council approved holding a referendum on increased penalties for possession, use, or sale of marijuana.[15] In the resulting referendum, held in April 1990, 53 percent of voters agreed to amend Section 16.2 of the city charter with heightened penalties, raising the fine from $5 to $25 for a first offense, $50 for a second offense, and $100 or more for further offenses. The offense, however, remained a civil infraction rather than a misdemeanor or felony.[17]

In the same election, using a tactic modeled on the city's original $5 marijuana law, voters approved a charter amendment intended to protect access to abortion in Ann Arbor if it ever became illegal in the state of Michigan. Voters mandated that, should abortion ever become illegal, a city ordinance would come into force under which abortion would be punishable in Ann Arbor solely by a $5 fine. Local judges would thus have the ability to assess the $5 fine rather than any more punitive state penalties. Crafted as the state legislature debated increased restrictions on abortion in Michigan, including the adoption of a parental-consent bill, the measure declared the city a "zone of reproductive freedom."[18] The legality of the charter amendment remains unclear, since it has never been tested.

One local activist expressed disappointment with the voters' marijuana decision, telling USA Today: "The people were clearly pro-choice on abortion, and I expected them to be pro-choice on marijuana as well."[19] However, even with the new fine, possession of small amounts of the drug remained largely decriminalized in Ann Arbor, since the penalty continued to consist only of a civil-infraction ticket similar to a traffic fine.
Medical-marijuana referendum of 2004

On November 2, 2004, voters in Ann Arbor approved the Ann Arbor Medical Marijuana Initiative authored by city resident Rich Birkett. This ballot initiative amended Section 16.2 of the city charter to allow the growing and use of marijuana for medical purposes when authorized by a physician. The measure also capped fines for the third and subsequent offenses for non-medical uses or sale at $100.[20] The measure passed with 74 percent approval among voters. The Ann Arbor initiative was only one of several similar measures on local and state ballots that day: Columbia, Missouri, another college town, approved a similar law on medical marijuana, as did the state of Montana, while Oregon voters rejected an initiative to loosen its existing medical-marijuana program, and Alaska voters rejected total decriminalization of marijuana possession.

However, what had been a relatively uncontroversial measure during the election proved controversial following its passage. Shortly after its approval, the Ann Arbor city attorney Steve Postema characterized the initiative as "unenforceable," citing its conflicts with federal and state law. Likewise, city police chief Dan Oates announced that his police force would disregard it and continue normal enforcement practices. Activists who had worked to put the initiative on the ballot quickly expressed their outrage.[21] But since medical-marijuana users in Ann Arbor are very rarely prosecuted, and because the penalty for first-time possession remains a $25 civil-infraction fine, both the 2004 ballot measure itself and Oates's subsequent statements on enforcement may prove to be more symbolic than substantive.
Michigan Medical Marijuana Act of 2008

In November of 2008, Michigan's people passed the Michigan Medical Marijuana Act.[22] The new state law supports the Ann Arbor City charter by offering protection from state law enforcement for qualifying patients and their assigned primary caregivers under the law that took effect on April 4, 2009. Under the law, a patient with a qualifying condition and a signed statement from an attending physician, can register for an identification card under the Michigan Department of Community Health managed program for legal medical marijuana use in Michigan. After registration, the patient and primary caregiver can legally be in possession of marijuana according to State law. The primary caregiver may provide assistance for using medical marijuana or even be assigned responsibility for cultivating the patient's legally protected maximum of 12 marijuana plants, for a fee[23].

Even though the legal use of medical marijuana was allowed for in the Ann Arbor City Charter, it was still illegal in the State of Michigan, allowing for arrest from state police and other state law enforcement agencies. With this new protection under the Michigan state law, the only remaining threat to a registered patient or caregiver in Ann Arbor is from the untested nature of the new state law and the acts of the D.E.A and other federal law enforcement agencies.

Graham Nash's "Prison Song" from his 1974 album, Wild Tales, references Ann Arbor's lenient marijuana laws with the chorus:
Kids in Texas smoking grass,
Ten year sentence comes to pass
Misdemeanor in Ann Arbor,
Ask the judges why?

Disrupt IT

Michigan farm expert opens Marijuana U. - Teaches science...

Michigan farm expert opens Marijuana U. - Teaches science of Growing Pot

Washington Times - Wednesday, November 11, 2009

SOUTHFIELD, Mich. | Nearly a year after voters in this economically disadvantaged state overwhelmingly passed a ballot initiative approving the consumption of medicinal marijuana, a new trade school has opened its doors to educate aspiring growers.

Med Grow Cannabis College, located in the Detroit suburb of Southfield, is set to graduate its first class of students later this month. Its co-founder and president, Nick Tennant, the 24-year-old son of a General Motors Corp. employee, said he sees a significant opportunity to teach standards and safety in an industry that can eventually improve the state's sagging business climate.

"This is profitable and poised for tremendous growth," Mr. Tennant said.

Disrupt IT

The Budgetary Implications of Marijuana Prohibition

Milton Friedman, 500+ Economists Call for Marijuana Regulation Debate; New Report Projects $10-14 Billion Annual Savings and Revenues

Savings/Revenues Projected in New Study by Harvard Economist Could Pay For:
**Implementing Required Port Security Plans in Just One Year
**Securing Soviet-Era "Loose Nukes" in Under Three Years

Replacing marijuana prohibition with a system of taxation and regulation similar to that used for alcoholic beverages would produce combined savings and tax revenues of between $10 billion and $14 billion per year, finds a June 2005 report by Dr. Jeffrey Miron, visiting professor of economics at Harvard University.

The report has been endorsed by more than 530 distinguished economists, who have signed an open letter to President Bush and other public officials calling for "an open and honest debate about marijuana prohibition," adding, "We believe such a debate will favor a regime in which marijuana is legal but taxed and regulated like other goods."

Chief among the endorsing economists are three Nobel Laureates in economics: Dr. Milton Friedman of the Hoover Institute, Dr. George Akerlof of the University of California at Berkeley, and Dr. Vernon Smith of George Mason University.

Dr. Miron's paper, "The Budgetary Implications of Marijuana Prohibition," concludes:
**Replacing marijuana prohibition with a system of legal regulation would save approximately $7.7 billion in government expenditures on prohibition enforcement -- $2.4 billion at the federal level and $5.3 billion at the state and local levels.

**Revenue from taxation of marijuana sales would range from $2.4 billion per year if marijuana were taxed like ordinary consumer goods to $6.2 billion if it were taxed like alcohol or tobacco.

These impacts are considerable, according to the Marijuana Policy Project in Washington, D.C. For example, $14 billion in annual combined annual savings and revenues would cover the securing of all "loose nukes" in the former Soviet Union (estimated by former Assistant Secretary of Defense Lawrence Korb at $30 billion) in less than three years. Just one year's savings would cover the full cost of anti-terrorism port security measures required by the Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002. The Coast Guard has estimated these costs, covering 3,150 port facilities and 9,200 vessels, at $7.3 billion total.

"As Milton Friedman and over 500 economists have now said, it's time for a serious debate about whether marijuana prohibition makes any sense," said Rob Kampia, executive director of the Marijuana Policy Project in Washington, D.C. "We know that prohibition hasn't kept marijuana away from kids, since year after year 85% of high school seniors tell government survey-takers that marijuana is 'easy to get.' Conservatives, especially, are beginning to ask whether we're getting our money's worth or simply throwing away billions of tax dollars that might be used to protect America from real threats like those unsecured Soviet-era nukes."

Executive Summary

  • Government prohibition of marijuana is the subject of ongoing debate.
  • One issue in this debate is the effect of marijuana prohibition on government budgets. Prohibition entails direct enforcement costs and prevents taxation of marijuana production and sale.
  • This report examines the budgetary implications of legalizing marijuana—taxing and regulating it like other goods—in all fifty states and at the federal level.
  • The report estimates that legalizing marijuana would save $7.7 billion per year in government expenditure on enforcement of prohibition. $5.3 billion of this savings would accrue to state and local governments, while $2.4 billion would accrue to the federal government.
  • The report also estimates that marijuana legalization would yield tax revenue of $2.4 billion annually if marijuana were taxed like all other goods and $6.2 billion annually if marijuana were taxed at rates comparable to those on alcohol and tobacco.
  • Whether marijuana legalization is a desirable policy depends on many factors other than the budgetary impacts discussed here. But these impacts should be included in a rational debate about marijuana policy.

An Open Letter to the President, Congress, Governors, and State Legislatures

     We, the undersigned, call your attention to the attached report by Professor Jeffrey A. Miron, The Budgetary Implications of Marijuana Prohibition. The report shows that marijuana legalization -- replacing prohibition with a system of taxation and regulation -- would save $7.7 billion per year in state and federal expenditures on prohibition enforcement and produce tax revenues of at least $2.4 billion annually if marijuana were taxed like most consumer goods. If, however, marijuana were taxed similarly to alcohol or tobacco, it might generate as much as $6.2 billion annually.

     The fact that marijuana prohibition has these budgetary impacts does not by itself mean prohibition is bad policy. Existing evidence, however, suggests prohibition has minimal benefits and may itself cause substantial harm.

     We therefore urge the country to commence an open and honest debate about marijuana prohibition. We believe such a debate will favor a regime in which marijuana is legal but taxed and regulated like other goods. At a minimum, this debate will force advocates of current policy to show that prohibition has benefits sufficient to justify the cost to taxpayers, foregone tax revenues, and numerous ancillary consequences that result from marijuana prohibition.

Endorsing Economists:
*Affiliations listed are only for purposes of identification.

Milton Friedman The Hoover Institution, Stanford University Nobel Laureate
George A. Akerlof University of California, Berkeley Nobel Laureate
Vernon L. Smith George Mason University Nobel Laureate
David Aadland University of Wyoming  
Burton A. Abrams University of Delaware  
Daron Acemoglu Massachusetts Institute of Technology  
Ljubisa Adamovich Florida State University  
Earl Adams Alleghany College  
Ashraf Afifi Ferris State University  
Rita M. Akin Westminster College  
William Albanos Jr. PSI Learning Institute  
William Albrecht University of Iowa  
Donald Alexander Western Michigan University  
Michael Alexeev Indiana University  
Dan Alger Lawrence University  
Joseph Allen University of Georgia  
Amer Al-Saji Muskegon Community College  
Dave Amos Lorain County Community College  
James Anderson Boston College  
Joan Anderson University of San Diego  
Geoffrey T. Andron Austin Community College  
J.J. Arias Georgia College  
Bevin Ashenmiller Claremont McKenna College  
George Averitt Purdue University, North Central  
Robert J. Awkward Middlesex Community College  
Howard Baetjer Towson University  
Richard Baillie Michigan State University  
Jennifer A. Ball Washburn University  
Christopher Ball Quinnipiac University  
A. Paul Ballantyne University of Colorado, Colorado Springs  
Richard J. Ballman Jr. Augustana College  
Taradas Bandyopadhyay University of California, Riverside  
Edward B. Barbier University of Wyoming  
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William A. Barnett University of Kansas  
Humberto Barreto Wabash College  
J. Douglas Barrett University of North Alabama  
Kaushik Basu Cornell University  
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Tammy Batson Northern Illinois University  
Yoram Bauman Whitman College  
Ergin Bayrak University of Southern California  
Scott Beaulier Mercer University  
Fred Beebe Long Beach City College  
Arthur Benavie University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill  
Theodore Bergstrom University of California, Santa Barbara  
Eli Berman University of California, San Diego  
Colleen Berndt George Mason University  
Marc Bilodeau Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis  
Cyrus Bina University of Minnesota  
Stanley Black University of North Carolina  
McKinley Blackburn University of South Carolina  
Calvin Blackwell College of Charleston  
Emily Blanchard University of Virginia  
Andre Blaszczynski Tunxis Community College  
Howard Bodenhorn Lafayette University  
Donald J. Boudreaux George Mason University  
James Bradfield Hamilton College  
James Bradley University of South Carolina  
Carole L. Brandle Kent State University, Stark  
W. Kenneth Bratton Oakland Community College  
Paul Briggs Windward Community College  
Isabelle Brocas University of Southern California  
Gregory Brock Georgia Southern University  
Bruce Brown California State Polytechnic University, Pomona  
Carl Brown Florida Southern College  
Neil Bruce University of Washington  
John Bryant Rice University  
Roland Buck Morehead State University  
Carl Bonham University of Hawaii, Manoa  
John P. Burkett University of Rhode Island  
Joyce Burnette Wabash College  
Michael Butler Texas Christian University  
William N. Butos Trinity College  
Bernard Caldwell University of North Carolina, Greensboro  
David Campbell Whittier College  
Noel Campbell North Georgia College and State University  
S. Campo University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill  
Arthur J. Caplan Utah State University  
Bo Carlsson Case Western Reserve University  
Juan Carrillo University of Southern California  
Thomas M. Carrol Central Oregon Community College  
Michael Casson Delaware State University  
William Cauble Western Nebraska  
Adam Chacksfield Western Illinois University  
Ujjayant Chakravorty Emory University  
Jack Chambless Valencia Community College  
K Chandrasekar New York Institute of Technology  
Chun-Hao Chang Florida International University  
Andre Charleston    
James Chase Valencia Community College  
Walter Chatfield San Bernadino Valley College  
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Gerald Childs Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey  
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Kenny Christianson Binghamton University  
Lawrence R. Cima John Carroll University  
Clifford Clark University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign  
Norman Cloutier University of Wisconsin, Parkside  
Douglas Coate Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey  
Lee Cockerill California State University, Fullerton  
Richard Coe New College of Florida  
Philip Coelho Ball State University  
Boyd D. Collier Tarleton State University  
Robert Collinge University of Texas, San Antonio  
Darius J. Conger Ithaca College  
Laura S. Connolly University of Northern Colorado  
Michael B. Connolly University of Miami  
John M. Cooper Minnesota State University, Moorhead  
Solveg Cooper Cuesta College  
Erik Craft University of Richmond  
Roger Craine University of California, Berkeley  
James Crawford Valley City State University  
Ron Cronovich University of Nevada, Las Vegas  
John Cuddington Georgetown University  
Scott Cunning University of Georgia  
Andrew Currie Simon Frasier University  
Elizabeth Curtis New England College  
Susan Dadres Southern Methodist University  
Sami Dakulia University of Alabama  
Thomas Dalton Southern University at New Orleans  
Richard H. Davidson Daytona Beach Community College  
Ronald B. Davies University of Oregon  
Spencer Davis North Carolina State University  
William L. Davis University of Tennessee, Martin  
Susan Davis Buffalo State College  
Alan V. Deardorff University of Michigan  
Gregory Delemeester Marietta College  
Steven Deller University of Wisconsin, Madison  
Alex DePinto University of Redlands  
Robert J. Derrell Manhattanville College  
William Desimini Suffolk County Community College  
James Devault Lafayette University  
Darlene DeVera Miami University of Ohio  
Hashem Dezhbakhsh Emory University  
Arthur M. Diamond, Jr. University of Nebraska, Omaha  
Angela Dills Clemson University  
Caf Dowlah Queensboro Community College  
Robin Dubin Case Western Reserve University  
Kevin Duncan Colorado State University  
Tomas Dvorak Union College  
William R. Easterly New York University  
Jonathan Eaton New York University  
Fritz Efaw University of Tennessee, Chattanooga  
Bernard Elbaum University of California, Santa Cruz  
Catherine S. Elliott New College of Florida  
Howard Ellis Millersville University of Pennsylvania  
Richard England University of New Hampshire  
Cosmas Etim Central Connecticut State University  
Paul Evans Ohio State University  
Micky Falkson Cornell University  
Joshua Farley University of Vermont  
Robert M. Feinberg American University  
William Feipel Illinois Central College  
David Felix Washington University in St. Louis  
J. Peter Ferderer Macalester College  
Daniel Fink Cornell University  
Mark Finlay Armstrong Atlantic State University  
Robert J. Flanagan Stanford University  
John Flander Central Methodist University  
Jaime Flores Chabot Community College  
Fred E. Foldvary Santa Clara University  
John Formby University of Alabama  
Annette D. Forti State University of New York, Old Westbury  
John Fox Kansas State University  
April M. Franco University of Iowa  
Mark Frascatore Clarkson University  
L. Freiberg Northeastern Illinois University  
Marcia J Frost Wittenberg University  
Mark Frost Southern Methodist University  
Drew Fudenberg Harvard University  
T. Galloway Southwest Missouri State University  
Alka Gandhi Lycoming College  
Gay Garesche Glendale Community College  
Leonard Gaston Central State University  
Jeremiah German Towson University  
Malcolm Getz Vanderbilt University  
Adam Gifford Jr. California State University, Northridge  
Scott Gilbert Southern Illinois University, Carbondale  
Lance Girton University of Utah  
Michael Goldberg University of New Hampshire  
Robert J. Gordon Northwestern University  
Robert Gottfried Vanderbilt University  
Simon Grant Rice University  
Philip E. Graves University of Colorado  
Keith Griffin University of California, Riverside  
Anthony Gu State University of New York, Geneseo  
Eleanor Gubins Rosemont College  
Oabe Gunrin Howard University  
Steffen Habermalz University of Nebraska, Kearney  
Thomas Hall Miami University  
Juan Carlos Hallak University of Michigan  
Jay Hamilton John Jay College of Criminal Justice  
David Hammes University of Hawaii, Hilo  
Bruce Hansen University of Wisconsin, Madison  
Robin Hanson George Mason University  
Stephen Happel Oregon State University  
Jon Harford Cleveland State University  
Philip Harris University of Wisconsin, Madison  
Oliver Hart Harvard University  
Seid Hassan Murray State University  
Donald M. Hayward Mote Marine Laboratory  
S. Aaron Hegde California State University, Bakersfield  
Ali Hekm College of Eastern Utah  
Ian Hellings Kankakee Community College  
Andrew Helms University of Georgia  
David Hemenway Harvard University  
David Henderson The Hoover Institution, Stanford University  
Eugene M. Herman Moraine Valley Community College  
Berthold Herrendorf Arizona State University  
Rodney Hiser Butler Community College  
Arnold Hite Charleston Southern University  
Vladimir Hlasny Michigan State University  
Paul Hodges University of Texas, Permian Basin  
John Hoftyzer Southwest Missouri State University  
Stephen Holland University of North Carolina, Greensboro  
James M. Holmes State University of New York, Buffalo  
Theresa Honeycutt Edison College  
Steven Horwitz St. Lawrence University  
A. Reza Hoshmand Daniel Webster College  
Frank M. Howland Wabash College  
Wade Hudson Wagner College Staten Island  
Mary Huff Stevenson University of Massachusetts, Boston  
Mark Huggett Georgetown University  
Barry Ickes Pennsylvania State University  
Selo Imrohoroglu University of Southern California  
Thomas Ireland University of Missouri, St. Louis  
Alan Isaac American University  
Nurul Islam University of Massachusetts, Boston  
Habib Jam Rowan University  
Jay A. Johnson Southeastern Louisiana University  
Laurie Johnson University of Denver  
Richard Johnston Monmouth College  
Elia Kacapyr Ithaca College  
David E. Kalist Shippensburg University  
M. Kamrany University of Southern California  
John Kane State University of New York, Oswego  
Edi Karni The Johns Hopkins University  
Jonathan Karpoff University of Washington  
Sheen T. Kassouf University of California, Irvine  
Terry Kastens Kansas State University  
Milton Katoglis Emory University  
Jim Kelsey Western Washington University  
Dick K. Kennedy Odessa College  
Lawrence Kenny University of Florida  
Peter Kerr Southeast Missouri State University  
Neha Khanna Binghamton University  
Kyoo H. Kim Bowling Green State University  
Roy Kim Drexel University  
So Young Kim Florida Atlantic University  
Kiho Kim Medgar Emers College  
Kent P. Kimbrough Duke University  
John Kirk College of San Mateo  
Paul A. Kivi Bemidji State University  
Daniel Klein Santa Clara University  
Daniel Klein George Mason University  
David Klingaman University of Georgia  
Jeffrey Koch Strong High-Yield  
Kenneth Koelln University of North Texas  
Stephen Kolub Swarthmore College  
William Kordsmeier University of Central Arkansas  
James Koscielniak Moraine Valley Community College  
Lea-Rachel Kosnik University of Missouri, St. Louis  
Lawrence D. Krohn Tufts University  
Monika Krol Southern Illinois University  
Douglas Krupka Georgia State University  
Sisko Kule Valencia Community College  
Ronald Kuntze University of Tampa  
James Kurre Pennsylvania State University, Erie  
Michael Kurth McNeese State University  
Michael Kuryla Broome Community College  
Ben Kyer Francis Marion University  
Kern Kymn West Virginia University  
Sumner La Croix University of Hawaii-Manoa  
Sajal Lahiri Southern Illinois University  
Fabian Lange Yale University  
George Langelett South Dakota State University  
Richard Langlois University of Connecticut  
William D. Lastrapes University of Georgia  
William Lay Jr. Bryan College  
Stephen Layson University of North Carolina, Greensboro  
Gregor Lazarcik Brooklyn College  
Quan V. Le Seattle University  
Li Way Lee Wayne State University  
Gary D. Lemon DePauw University  
Fred H. Leonard Smith College  
Stephen F. LeRoy University of California, Santa Barbara  
David K. Levine University of California, Los Angeles  
Robert Levman    
Anthony Lewis Jr.    
Yang Li University of Mississippi  
Carlos Liard-Muriente Western New England College  
Byron Lilly De Anza College  
Terrance Liska University of Wisconsin, Platteville  
George Loewenstein Carnegie Mellon University  
Franklin A. López Tulane University and University of New Orleans  
Guido Lorenzoni Massachusetts Institute of Technology  
Richard Lotspeich Indiana State University  
Anton Lowenberg California State University, Northridge  
Hari Sharan Luitel West Virginia University  
James Luke Lansing Community College  
R. Ashley Lymann University of Idaho  
John Lynham University of California, Santa Barbara  
Roger Mack De Anza College  
Craig MacPhee University of Nebraska, Lincoln  
Matt Maher Boise State University  
Michael T. Maloney Clemson University  
Howard Margolis University of Chicago  
Mindy Marks University of California, Riverside  
Matthew Marlin Duquesne University  
Craig Marxsenc University of Nebraska, Kearney  
Paul Mason University of North Florida  
Harpal Maur Austin Community College  
Rachel McCulloch Brandeis University  
Laurence McCulloch Ohio State University  
Todd McFall Wake Forest University  
Niccie McKay University of Florida  
Kelly McKay Victoria College  
Robert F. McNown University of Colorado, Boulder  
Michael McPherson University of North Texas  
Jagdish Mehra Youngstown State University  
Matthew Mercurio Princeton University  
John Merrifield University of Texas, San Antonio  
Peter Milch Houston Community College  
Dragan Milkovic North Dakota State University  
Gary Miller Los Angeles Harbor College  
Matthew Mitchell University of Iowa  
John Mogab Texas State University  
Mark Montgomery Grinnell College  
Carlisle Moody The College of William and Mary  
James E. Moore II University of Southern California  
James Morris University of Colorado, Denver  
Catherine Morrison Paul University of California, Davis  
Andrew P. Morriss Case Western Reserve University  
Leon Moses Northwestern University  
Tracy Mott University of Denver  
Herv? Moulin Rice University  
John Mullen State University of New York, Potsdam  
Thomas Murray New Mexico State University, Grants  
Richard Muth Emory University  
Amy Myers Parkland College  
John Nader Grand Valley State University  
Emilio Nazario Delaware State University  
Donald Nichols Oakland Community College  
Inder P. Nijhawan Fayetteville State University  
Farhang Niroomand University of Southern Mississippi  
William Nook Milwaukee Area Technical College  
Hugo R. Nopo Middlebury College  
Susan Nowakhtar Chaffey College and Mount San Antonio College  
Stephen A. O'Connell Swarthmore College  
Frederick Oerther Greensboro College  
Brenden O'Flaherty Columbia University  
Amon Okpala Fayetteville State University  
Jayde Okunubj Medgar Emers College  
Bernard O'Rourke Caldwell College  
Jim O'Shaughnessy Daytona Beach Community College  
Dragana Ostojic George Mason University  
Patsy P. University of Pennsylvania  
Jan Parker Suffolk County Community College  
Elliott Parker University of Nevada, Reno  
Christopher Parmeter Binghamton University  
Christine Parrott Austin Community College  
E. C. Pasour North Carolina State University  
Jennifer Patti    
Michael Perelman California State University, Chico  
Dwight Heald Perkins Harvard University  
Mark Perry University of Michigan, Flint  
Stanley Peters    
Bethany Peters Rhodes College  
Nicholas Petricoff University of Cincinnati  
Michael Petrowsky Glendale Community College  
Christopher Phillips Somerset Community College  
Candace Pivit    
Ivan Pongracic Hillsdale College  
Charles Pregger-Roman Castleton State College  
Christopher D. Proulx University of California, Santa Barbara  
Sara Provost    
Michael Pumputis    
Fernando Quijano Dickinson State University  
Valerie Ramey University of California, San Diego  
John Rapp University of Dayton  
Kenneth Rebeck St. Cloud State University  
Charles Reichheld Cuyahoga Community College  
Joseph Reid George Mason University  
David Reiley University of Arizona  
Siobhan Reilly Mills College  
Stanley Reiter Northwestern University  
Ariell Reshef New York University  
Charles F Revier Colorado State University  
Reed Reynolds University of Toledo  
Linda Richten Kansas State University  
Mark Ridin    
Robert Rigney Valencia Community College  
Aric Rindfleisch University of Wisconsin, Madison  
Ken Roberts Southwestern University  
Nancy Roberts Arizona State University  
Gary Robertson Aquinas College  
Malcolm Robinson Thomas More College  
William Robinson University of California, Santa Barbara  
Leila A Rodemann Trident Technical College  
Terry Roe University of Minnesota  
Robert Rogers Dauch College  
Michael Rolleigh Williams College  
Rafael Romero State University of New York Institute of Technology  
Don Roper University of Colorado, Boulder  
Jaime Ros University of Notre Dame  
Thomas Rossi Broome Community College  
Santanu Roy Southern Methodist University  
Dan Rubenson Southern Oregon University  
Paul H. Rubin Emory University  
Anthony Rufolo Portland State University  
John Ruggiero University of Dayton  
Mark Rush University of Florida  
Gerard Russo University of Hawaii  
Andy Rutten Stanford University  
Kanchana N. Ruwampura Hobart and William Smith Colleges  
William Sackett Itasca Community College  
Massood Saffarian Northwestern Oklahoma State University  
Diego Salazar University of San Dakota  
Michael K. Salemi University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill  
Michael Saliba Loyola University New Orleans  
Donald Salyards Winoma State University  
Subarma Samanta The College of New Jersey  
John Sanders Purdue University  
Howard Sanderson Virginia Commonwealth University  
William H. Sandholm University of Wisconsin  
Connie Sanzo Pima Community College  
Hyman Sardy Brooklyn College  
Rajiv Sarin Texas A&M University  
Nathan Savin Iowa State University  
Ted Scheinman Mount Hood Community College  
Ken Schoolland Hawaii Pacific University  
Samuel Schreyer St. Cloud State University  
Carlos Seiglie Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey  
George Selgin University of Georgia  
Rajiv Sethi Barnard College, Columbia University  
John Seydel Arkansas State University  
Robert Sgazzle Williams College  
Mohamad Shaaf University of Central Oklahoma  
Howard Shaber Montgomery College  
Harry Shaffer University of Kansas  
Rami Shafiee North Harris College  
Sumitra Shah St. John's University  
Nasrin Shahinpoor Butler University  
Bill W. Shaw Louisiana College  
William Douglas Shaw Texas A&M University  
John Shea University of Maryland  
Edward Shepard Le Moyne College  
James F. Shepard Whitman College  
George Sherer University of Dayton  
Stephen Shmanske California State University  
Hamid Shomali Golden Gate University  
Scott Shore Bentley College  
Martin Shubik Yale University  
Steven Shugan University of Florida  
Werner Sichel Western Michigan University  
Hammad Siddiqi Northern Illinois University  
Randy T. Simmons Utah State University  
Thomas R. Simmons Greenfield Community College  
Rajesh Singh Iowa State University  
R.L. Singson California State University, Hayward  
Sarah J. Skinner University of Louisiana, Lafayette  
Allan G. Sleeman Western Washington University  
Kenneth A. Small University of California, Irvine  
Rachael Small University of Colorado, Boulder  
Robert S. Smith Cornell University  
Halon Smith University of Minnesota  
Rodney Smith University of Minnesota  
Arthur Snow University of Georgia  
Russell S. Sobel West Virginia University  
Eric Solberg California State University, Fullerton  
Marilyn Spencer Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi  
Leora Starr Metropolitan State College of Denver  
Mark Staynings Bowling Green Community College  
Sally Stearns University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill  
Ivan Steinberg New Jersey City University  
Jean-Philippe Stijns Northeastern University  
Courtenay Stone Ball State University  
Scot Stradley Concordia College  
Diana Strassmann Rice University  
David Sturges Colgate University  
Xuejuan Su University of Alabama  
Venkat Subramaniam Tulane University  
Diane R. Suhler Columbia College  
Scott Sumner Bentley College  
James Swaney Wright State University  
James L. Sweeney Stanford University  
Moshe Syrquin University of Miami  
Alex Tabarrok George Mason University  
David Talbot Plymouth State University  
Harry Taute New Mexico State University  
Henry M. Taylor Martin University  
Wade Thomas State University of New York, Oneonta  
Mary Thompson University of Tennessee  
Henry Thompson Auburn University  
Philip Thompson Central Michigan University  
Walter N. Thurman North Carolina State University  
Jerry Thursby Emory University  
Richard H. Timberlake University of Georgia  
Alex Tokarev Southern Illinois University, Carbondale  
Mark Toma University of Kentucky  
Kudret Topyan Manhattan College  
Edward Tower Duke University  
Karen K. Tracey Marygrove College  
Philip A. Trostel University of Maine  
Gordon Tullock George Mason University  
Bruce Vanderporten Loyola University Chicago  
Minh Vo University of Minnesota  
Richard Volpe University of Massachusetts, Amherst  
John Volpe Trinity University  
Mark Votruba Case Western Reserve University  
John R. Wagner Westfield State College  
Douglas Wakeman Meredith College  
Douglas M. Walker Georgia College  
Gary M. Walton University of California, Davis  
Kam-Ming Wan University of Texas, Dallas  
X.H. Wang University of Missouri  
Jennifer Ward-Batts Claremont McKenna College  
David Warner University of Texas, Austin  
Matt Warning University of Puget Sound  
Dale W. Warnke College of Lake County  
John P. Watkins Westminster College, Salt Lake City  
William Weber Southeast Missouri State University  
Jack Wegman Santa Rosa Junior College  
Kenneth Weiher University of Texas, San Antonio  
Martin Weitzman Harvard University  
Stanislaw Wellisz Columbia University  
Jeff Welty Wright State University  
Walter Wessels North Carolina State University  
James Wetzel Virginia Commonwealth University  
David Wharton Washington College  
Hsin-hui Whited Colorado State University, Pueblo  
James Whitney Occident College  
Jonathan Wight University of Richmond  
Walter Williams George Mason University  
Jeffrey G Williamson Harvard University  
John Willoughby American University  
Beth Wilson Humboldt State University  
Wllmer Wilson University of Colorado, Boulder  
David M. Wishart Wittenberg University  
Theodore Woodruff St. Ambrose University  
Colin Wright Claremont McKenna College  
Thomas Wyrick Southwest Missouri State University  
Pavel Yakovlev West Virginia University  
Takashi Yamashita University of Nevada, Las Vegas  
Chin W. Yang Clarion University  
Andrew Yates University of Richmond  
Madelyn V. Young Converse College  
Ben Young University of Missouri  
Huizhong Zhou Western Michigan University  
Stephen Zihiak Roosevelt University  
Joseph Zoric Franciscan University of Steubenville

Disrupt IT

Many lucid economists in Ohio

We should get some real Ohio economists together to discuss making the findings from this poll part of developing our strategy for Ohio becoming the brightest greenest state of Earth... from the list above (sorry if I missed anyone...):

Dave Amos Lorain County Community College 
Carole L. Brandle Kent State University, Stark 
Bo Carlsson Case Western Reserve University 
Lawrence R. Cima John Carroll University 
Gregory Delemeester Marietta College 
Darlene DeVera Miami University of Ohio 
Robin Dubin Case Western Reserve University 
Paul Evans Ohio State University 
Jon Harford Cleveland State University 
Kyoo H. Kim Bowling Green State University 
Laurence McCulloch Ohio State University 
Andrew P. Morriss Case Western Reserve University 
Nicholas Petricoff University of Cincinnati 
John Rapp University of Dayton 
Charles Reichheld Cuyahoga Community College 
Reed Reynolds University of Toledo 
George Sherer University of Dayton 
Mark Staynings Bowling Green Community College 
Mark Votruba Case Western Reserve University 
Joseph Zoric Franciscan University of Steubenville

Poll results, to-date and time of this posting (poll still open)...

Michigan is #1... it's Ohio State vs. Michigan, people - go Ohio State... Legalize Medical Marijuana Ohio-wide
3% (1 vote)
NEO can easily be world leaders in medical marijuana R&D and production... Legalize Medical Marijuana in Cuyahoga
10% (3 votes)
Professional sports... casinos... waterfront living... high rollers want to get high... Decriminalize Marijuana in Cleveland
7% (2 votes)
Marijuana is safer than beer - do all of the above and more... and stop wasting tax money on petty pot prisoners
59% (17 votes)
Gateway drug, reefer madness, rape, pillage, plunder... bars would be empty... jails emptied... NO - arrest all potheads
21% (6 votes)
Total votes: 29

Disrupt IT

Popular topic--Smoking POT

You will drive a lot of traffic to REALNEO with this post there a method to the madness? :)  I attended U of M.  Talk to Dan Gilbert.  Makes more sense than a casino.

So far, people seem afraid to vote

REALNEO polls are open to the public and we do not have a way to track who votes or how, so don't worry that you will be tracked down by the police for voting on this poll.

The method to my madness it to raise an obvious, serious economic development issue that has not been raised in Northeast Ohio, even as it is being legislated into common practice in progressive communities. Just like my promotion of discusion on the topic of pollution.

I first thought about this topic seriously in college, as an Economics student at Tulane, when I attended an economics debate between John Kenneth Galbraith and William F. Buckley on the subject of legalization of marijuana - Galbriath was against legalization of marijuana, for social reasons, while Buckley was in favor of legalization of marijuana, for capitalist reasons.

While I am a big fan of Galbraith, Buckley won the debate, as time has told.

That debate was in around 1980 - I can't find much record of it online.

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campaign of disinformation

Research is taking place. It has been underground, not widely publicized and the potential benefits of marijuana or cannabis extracts have been downplayed. Check this site: MAPS: Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies Study of the potential benefits is discouraged.

Remember this? "This is your brain... this is your brain on drugs." I doubt that we will see this: "This is your body... this is your body on processed foods." Companies like Unilever, Altria, Cargill, Dupont, Monsanto will see to it that we will never see such a campaign. Lobbyists and campaign financing. 

It is interesting that Europeans lack a few ingredients in their diets that Americans consume on a daily basis: GMOs, flouride and adderall. Don't kid yourselves. We're being medicated. And drugs are being pushed at us from every angle, in the grocery store, on tv, even billboards. We live in a drug culture. It is just fascinating to consider what we consider drugs and what we consider food. 

One sunny winter day I had lunch at the Galleria on E9th Street with a friend. We got to talking about highest, best use (no pun intended) of that building. A Medical Marijuana Mart. It was a joke, but it needn't be. Could it happen as a project of the two medical giants in town? Highly unlikely. The profits are too low for pharmaceutical companies apparently. 

Campaign of alcoholism

I think our leaders are just too drunk... old data, old topic, old leaders... old economy.

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Perhaps too busy drinking and driving...

Interesting results to this poll, so far... wonder why this isn't discussed as an economic development opportunity in this region, when it is already at play in so many enlightened places, and people already seem as enlightened on the opportunity here as anywhere...

Perhaps our leadership is missing something.

Perhaps too busy drinking and driving... at 420.

Disrupt IT

Control- Tax & Regulate Medical Marijuana- Cannabis- Hemp!

Billions of dollars in tax revenue are at stake.

For more Cannabis- Marijuana- Hemp news and gossip, find me on Twitter: HempNetworker